Of the five mass extinction events on Earth, the one 252 million years ago during the Permian Period was the most devastating. The Permian mass extinction, or “Great Dying,” killed 9 out of every 10 species on the planet and its effects are still seen today.
The Yellowstone Supervolcano is one of the most geologically active locations on the planet. It was the site of numerous lava flows and minor volcanic eruptions as well as three of the largest and most catastrophic eruptions in Earth’s history.
Spadefoot toads (Pelobatoidea) are a group of toads which posses a bony “spade” on their foot that they use to burrow underground. A fossil found in Mongolia from the Paleocene suggests that burrowing did not evolve as a response to aridity as previously thought.